Oceans and Seas
Ocean: Large indefinite quantity of water
Sea: A division of an ocean or a large body of salt water partially
enclosed by land
* Roughly 70 percent of an adult’s body is made up of water.
* At birth, water accounts for approximately 80 percent of an infant’s
* A healthy person can drink about three gallons (48 cups) of water per
* Drinking too much water too quickly can lead to water intoxication.
Water intoxication occurs when water dilutes the sodium level in the
bloodstream and causes an imbalance of water in the brain.
* Water intoxication is most likely to occur during periods of intense
* While the daily recommended amount of water is eight cups per day, not
all of this water must be consumed in the liquid form. Nearly every food
or drink item provides some water to the body.
* Soft drinks, coffee, and tea, while made up almost entirely of water,
also contain caffeine. Caffeine can act as a mild diuretic, preventing
water from traveling to necessary locations in the body.
* Pure water (solely hydrogen and oxygen atoms) has a neutral pH of 7,
which is neither acidic nor basic.
* Water dissolves more substances than any other liquid. Wherever it
travels, water carries chemicals, minerals, and nutrients with it.
* Somewhere between 70 and 75 percent of the earth’s surface is covered
* Much more fresh water is stored under the ground in aquifers than on the
* The earth is a closed system, similar to a terrarium, meaning that it
rarely loses or gains extra matter. The same water that existed on the
earth millions of years ago is still present today.
* The total amount of water on the earth is about 326 million cubic miles
* Of all the water on the earth, humans can used only about three tenths
of a percent of this water. Such usable water is found in groundwater
aquifers, rivers, and freshwater lakes.
* The United States uses about 346,000 million gallons of fresh water
every day. The United States uses nearly 80 percent of its water for
irrigation and thermoelectric power·
* The average person in the United States uses anywhere from 80-100
gallons of water per day. Flushing the toilet actually takes up the
largest amount of this water.
* Approximately 85 percent of U.S. residents receive their water from
public water facilities. The remaining percent supply their own water from
private wells or other sources.
* By the time a person feels thirsty, his or her body has lost over 1
percent of its total water amount.
* The weight a person loses directly after intense physical activity is
weight from water, not fat.
Did you Know?
The oceans occupy nearly 70 per cent of our planet's surface more than 97%
of all our planet's water is contained in the ocean
the top ten feet of the ocean hold as much heat as our entire atmosphere
the average depth of the ocean is more than 2.5 miles
the oceans provide 99 percent of the Earth's living space- the largest
space in our universe known to be inhabited by living organisms more than
90% of this habitat exists in the deep sea known as the abyss less than
10% of this living space has been explored by humans
Mount Everest (the highest point on the Earth's surface 5.49 miles) is
more than 1 mile shorter that the Challenger Deep (the deepest point in
the ocean at 6.86 miles)
the longest continuous mountain chain known to exist in the Universe
resides in the ocean at more than 40,000 miles long
the Monterey Bay Submarine Canyon is deeper and larger in volume than the
the Antarctic ice sheet that forms and melts over the ocean each year is
nearly twice the size of the United States
the average temperature of the oceans is 2ºC, about 39ºF
water pressure at the deepest point in the ocean is more than 8 tons per
square inch, the equivalent of one person trying to hold 50 jumbo jets.
cold, saline water that forms off the coast of Iceland can be found in the
North Pacific Ocean, about 1000 years later
the Gulf Stream off the Atlantic seaboard of the United States flows at a
rate nearly 300 times faster than the typical flow of the Amazon river,
the world's largest river
the world ocean contains nearly 20 million tons of gold
the color blue is least absorbed by seawater; the same shade of blue is
most absorbed by microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, drifting in
a new form of life, based on chemical energy rather than light energy,
resides in deep-sea hydrothermal vents along mid-ocean ridges
a swallow of seawater may contain millions of bacterial cells, hundreds of
thousands of phytoplankton and tens of thousands of zooplankton
the blue whale, the largest animal on our planet ever (exceeding the size
of the greatest dinosaurs) still lives in the ocean; it's heart is the
size of a Volkswagen
the gray whale migrates more than 10,000 miles each year, the longest
migration of any mammal
the swordfish and marlin are the fastest fish in the ocean, reaching
speeds up to 75 miles per hour in quick bursts; the blue fin tuna may
reach sustained speeds up to 55 miles per hour
many sharks give live birth to their young, a phenomenon called vivipary;
rival siblings sometimes eat each other before they are even born
the Great Barrier Reef, measuring 1,243 miles, is the largest living
structure on Earth
more than 90 percent of the trade between countries is carried by ships
and about half the communications between nations use underwater cables
more oil reaches the oceans each year as a result of leaking automobiles
and other non-point sources that was spilled in Prince William Sound by
the Exxon Valdez
fish supply the greatest percentage of the world's protein consumed by
humans most of the world's major fisheries are being fished at levels
above their maximum sustainable yield; some regions are severely over
five species of salmon are now on the endangered species list in the
Pacific Northwest, as a result of habitat destruction, logging, over
fishing, building of dams and other problems
Oceans and Water
The PACIFIC Ocean is the largest of the four main oceans. Although its'
name means peaceful, if can be very rough! It is 64 million square miles.
The ATLANTIC Ocean is the busiest. Many ships cross the Atlantic, carrying
cargo between the Americas, Africa, and Europe. It is 32 million square
The INDIAN Ocean is located in an area bordered by the continents of Asia,
Africa, Antarctica, and Australia. It is 28 million square miles.
The ARCTIC Ocean is the smallest and coldest. It is 5 million square
The average temperature of all oceans is about 39 degrees F (3.8 degrees
The average depth of all oceans is about 2.3 miles.
There are mountains, volcanoes, and deep trenches in the ocean.
Oceans are always moving.
CURRENTS flow like rivers, carrying warm water from the tropics, and cold
water from the north and south poles.
TIDES change twice a day, all over the world, as the oceans rise and fall
along the shoreline. Scientists think this is caused by the pull of the
sun and moon on our earth.
CORAL REEFS are vast, rocky areas located in shallow, tropical waters.
They are like the tropical rain forest of the ocean! The greatest variety
of plant and animal life in the ocean live there. Coral reefs are formed
from the bodies of small sea creatures called polyps.